Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy

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Entering the territory of Poland

Citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States may enter the territory of Poland on the basis of a valid travel document or any other document which confirms their identity and nationality. Family members of the citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States, who are not citizens of the respective EU or EFTA Member State, may enter the territory of Poland on the basis of a valid travel document and a visa, if required. Visa applications should be submitted to the Consul of the Republic of Poland or the chief of the unit of the Border Guard.

Family members of the citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States are deemed to be:

  • spouses,
  • direct “descendants” (descendants in direct line: children) of the citizen or his or her spouse, aged up to 21 years or being dependant of the citizen or his or her spouse,
  • direct “ascendants” (ascendants in direct line: father, mother) of the citizen or his or her spouse, being dependant of the citizen or his or her spouse.

Citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States or family members who are not citizens of the EU may be rejected to enter the territory of Poland in case:

  • they enter during the validity period of the entry in the register of foreigners who are not desired to stay in the territory of Poland,
  • their stay may pose a threat to the defence or security of the state or to the protection of the security and public order and to public health,
  • they do not possess a document which gives the right to enter the territory of Poland, unless they prove in a different way which does not raise any doubts that they are entitled to benefit from the free movement of persons.

Registration

Citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States and their family members who are not citizens of the states are obliged to register in the place of their permanent or temporary residence of over 3 months not later than within 30 days from the arrival date to the place. Registration is for record purposes only and is aimed at confirming the stay of a person in the place in which he or she has registered. Citizens may register for permanent or temporary residence of over 3 months in writing, by means of an appropriate form in the municipal body which is competent for the location of the real estate the persons resides in, by presenting a valid travel document, whereby family members of citizens of the EU are obliged to present a valid residence card of the family member along with the valid travel document. The registration form must include a confirmation of the owner or of any other entity which has the legal title to the real estate that the person resides in the real estate, as well as a document which confirms the legal right to the real estate, e.g. a civil law contract or an extract from the land and mortgage register, must be kept available. The registration may be completed in person or through a proxy. Furthermore, citizens who possess the trusted profile (eGo) may register electronically on the Electronic Services Platform of the Public Administration (ePUAP). The registration is free of charge. Upon the registration, the PESEL number will be assigned as well.

Staying in Poland for up to 3 months – no obligation to register

Citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States and their family members who are not citizens of the states may stay in the territory of Poland for up to 3 months without the obligation to register their stay. While staying in the territory of Poland, the citizens are obliged to have a valid travel document or any other valid document which confirms their identity and nationality. Family members who are not citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States are obliged to have a valid travel document and a visa, if required.

Staying in Poland for over 3 months – obligation to register

Citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States may stay in Poland for a period of over 3 months in case:

  • they are employees or self-employed in the territory of Poland,
  • they have sufficient financial resources to support themselves and their family members in Poland so that they are not a burden for the social security system and are subject to universal health insurance or are persons who are authorised to use health care services in accordance with the provisions on the coordination of the social security systems or they have private health insurance which covers any and all expenditures which may be incurred during their stay in Poland,
  • they are students or participants in a professional training and are subject to universal health insurance or are persons who are authorised to use health care services in accordance with the provisions on the coordination of the social security systems or they have private health insurance which covers any and all expenditures which may be incurred during their stay in Poland and have sufficient financial resources to support themselves and their family members in Poland so that they are not a burden for the social security system,
  • they are a spouse of a Polish citizen,
  • they are job seekers, but they may stay up to 6 months without the obligation to register, unless they prove upon the lapse of the period that they continue to be active job seekers and have real chances to get a job.

If the stay in the territory of Poland last more than 3 months:

  • citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States are obliged to register their stay,
  • family members of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States who are not citizens of the states are obliged to obtain a residence card for family members of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States, which is issued for a period of 5 years as a rule (or for a shorter period depending on the period of the planned stay of the citizen of the EU whom a family member joins or with whom a family member stays in the territory of Poland.

To register the stay in the territory of Poland or to obtain a residence card for family members of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States, citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States should submit an appropriate application with the required documents to the voivode who is competent for the place in which the citizen of the EU stays in Poland.

No fees are charged for registering the stay or issuing the residence card for family members of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States.

Right of permanent residence in Poland – applying for evidence documents

Upon the lapse of 5 years of continuous residence in the territory of Poland, citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States acquire the right of permanent residence. Family members who are not citizens of the states acquire the right of permanent residence upon the lapse of 5 years of continuous residence in the territory in Poland together a citizen of the EU or of the EFTA Member States. The residence is deemed to be continuous in case the interested person has not left Poland for more than 6 months during a year (in total). However, they may stay outside of Poland for a longer period due to: mandatory military services or an important personal event, in particular pregnancy, delivery, illness, vocational training, or delegation, provided that the period does not exceed 12 consecutive months.

To obtain a document which confirms the right of permanent residence in Poland or to obtain a residence card for family members of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States, citizens of the EU should submit an appropriate application with the required documents to the voivode who is competent for his or her place of residence in Poland. The voivodes issue the documents free of charge.

Refusal to register the residence of citizens of the EU or EFTA Member States or to issue a residence card for family members of citizens of the EU or EFTA Member States

The voivode refuses to register the residence of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States or to issue a residence card for family members of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States

in case:

  • the conditions for residence mentioned in the provisions have not been fulfilled, or
  • the stay of the person concerned poses a threat to the defence or security of the state or to the protection of the security and public order, or
  • the marriage with the citizen of the EU or of the EFTA Member States is a sham marriage.

The voivode is also a competent authority in the following matters: cancelling the registration of residence, exchange or issuing a new certificate on the registration of residence, issuing, replacing or cancelling the residence card for family members of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States, and issuing, replacing or cancelling the document which confirms the right of permanent residence or the card of permanent residence for family members of citizens of the EU or of the EFTA Member States. The decision of the voivode may be appealed against to the Head of the Office for Foreigners in Warsaw through the competent voivode. The appeal should be submitted in writing within 14 days from the receipt date of the decision.


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